Zogzas while some (1994) believe you to definitely apparent occurrence depends on the volume diminishing coefficient and dampness blogs (Desk 3, Eq

Zogzas while some (1994) believe you to definitely apparent occurrence depends on the volume diminishing coefficient and dampness blogs (Desk 3, Eq

Apparent density (?b) designs

Predicated on Krokida and you will Philippopoulos (2005) , visible occurrence are a function of dampness content, brand of solid, and you can air frequency proportion. Most of the activities to have anticipating apparent occurrence used in this new literature is actually empirical; important or theoretical models just have started suggested of the a limited quantity of article authors ( Rahman while some 1996 ). New apparent density patterns have been designed based on dampness articles (X), as opposed to considering the aftereffects of drying out heat; not many thought diminishing, though it is high from the almost all times ( Moreira although some 2000 ; ).

18), where the volumetric shrinking coefficient https://datingranking.net/it/incontri-poliamorosi-it/ (?) is a linear function of moisture content. Boukouvalas and others (2006) mention that the parameters ( , ?) included in Eq. 18 of Table 3 depend on the drying method and processing conditions; as such, they propose Eq. 19, which considers ? to be a function of , ?w, and X.

Moreira and others (2000) keep you to obvious density can be found utilising the noticeable density of your own solid ( ) plus the size regarding drinking water ( ) early in drying out since a reference to possess very first regularity (Eq. 20, Dining table 3).

In Eq. 18 and 19, X= 0 is taken as a reference; in Eq. 20, the reference is X0= moisture content at the onset of drying.

The most recent theoretical model (Eq. 21) was put forth by Khalloufi and others (2010) . They consider ?b to be a function of the initial porosity of the material (?), X, ?w, ?s, ?(X), and collapse [?(X)].

Because the ?(X) and you can ?(X) may be the attributes off dampness stuff, he or she is determined by handling requirements, the kind of your own unit becoming dried, the fresh drying means, together with drying out phase ( Khalloufi while some 2010 ).

The brand new failure picture (Eq. 27) advised of the Khalloufi and others (2009) pledges your collapse function always starts in one single and you can closes from inside the no.

If issue is actually a good rubbery condition, diminishing makes up almost entirely getting moisture losings, while the number of the material reduces linearly having water blogs ( ). not, low-heat dehydration out of foodstuff prevents new moisture posts regarding the cardiovascular system of the procedure out of ever being much greater than compared to the outside, minimizing interior stress, and consequently, breaking ( Bai and others 2002 ).

An incorrect formula from ?(X) and you may ?(X) gives go up so you can a blunder from the computation out-of obvious thickness. This happens quite frequently, as most of people believe that shrinking is actually linear ( Zogzas although some 1994 ; Moreira while others 2000 ; ), or they fit they in order to a moment-studies polynomial ( Khalloufi although some 2010 ).

Upcoming habits is try and represent brand new behavior of obvious occurrence which have higher precision, looking at X and thermal history of the material getting dehydrated.


The tendencies of density with respect to moisture content and drying temperature have been discussed within the framework of currently available theories of second-order phase changes, structural changes, and changes in chemical composition occurring in the mass and heat transference processes. The majority of the empirical and theoretical equations representing true density do not fit the concave-down tendencies of certain materials. Equations for calculating apparent density based on shrinking and collapse are not reliable, as errors arise from failing to consider minimal variations in volume at the end of the drying process. It is recommended that variations in ?s and ?w as a function of the internal temperature of the material, according to the drying conditions (X, T), be included to yield a better fit to the tendencies of density with respect to X.